Harbour waves

the dickering wapentake - 1836

From the History and Topography of the City of York; The Ainsty Wapentake; and the East Riding of Yorkshire; embracing a general review of the early history of Great Britain, and a general history and description of the County of York. By J. J. Sheahan and T. Whellan. Vol 2.

Printed by John Green, Market Place, Beverley. 1856.


 

This division of the East Riding, which is situated at its north-eastern extremity, extends over an area of 109,980 acres, and contains a population of 1,465 souls; viz., 10,906 males, and 10,559 females. It comprises the market town of Bridlington, and the following parishes -Argam, Bempton, Bessingby, Boynton, Burton Agnes, Burton Fleming, Carnaby, Filey (part of), Flamborough, Folkton, Foston-upon-the-Wolds, Foxholes, Fraisthorpe, Ganton, Garton.upon-the-Wolds, Harpham, Hunmanby, Kilham, Lowthorpe, Muston, Nafferton, Wansford, Reighton, Ruston Parva, Thwing, Willerby, and Wold Newton. The wapentake is bounded on the east by the German Ocean, on the south by Harthill Wapentake and Holderness, on the west by Buckrose Wapentake, and on the north by the North Riding of the county. Dickering probably derived its name from the remarkable entrenchment near Flamborough, called the Danes Dyke.

ARGAM, or ERGHAM.-This is a small parish, sometimes considered extra-parochial, consisting of 510 acres, chiefly the property of Mr. Thomas Bell (the Lord of the Manor), and Yarburgh Yarburgh, Esq. The place is divided into Great and Little Argam, and the land is subdivided into three farms. It is situated about 5 miles N.W. of Bridlington. Its population is 40 persons, and rateable value £ 456.

The Living is a Rectory, valued in the King’s Books at £2. 18s. 4d., and now united to the Perpetual Curacy of Bridlington. The Church (St. John Baptist) is gone and no institution has taken place since 1605.

BEMPTON.-This parish is situated near Flamborough head, and is bounded on The north by the German Ocean. Its area is 2.093 acres, including sea coast, and the number of its inhabitants is 342. amount of assessed property, £2,343.; rateable value, £2,472. The principal landholders are F. S. Champion, Esq., Bempton (Lord of the Manor), Mr. G. Walmsley, Rudston; Miss Coverley, Bridlington; Mr. H. Pearson, West Ayton; Miss Broadley; and Mr. John Mimer, Kilham. Some of the richest grazing and feeding pastures in the East Riding are in this parish, and the farmers are regarded as being amongst the best cultivators of the soil.

The Living is a Perpetual Curacy, returned at £51., and augmented with £800. of Queen Anne's Bounty, from 1766 to 1824. The patronage is vested in Miss Broadley, who is also the impropriator, and the Rev. Jabez Banks is the Incumbent. The tithes were commuted for land, and a money payment, in 1765. The Church (St. Michael) belonged to the Priory of Bridlington, from which it was separated in 1474. It is a small edifice, consisting of a nave, side aisles, chancel, a low tower at the west end, and a porch on the south side. It has been repaired at different periods and the chancel was rebuilt, at the expense of the impropriator, in 1829. The windows are plain and square-headed, except the east window, which is of four lights. The aisles are divided from the nave by four circular arches, resting on circular pillars. There is a gallery for the singers at the west end. The tower contains two bells.

The village is situated about 8 1/2 miles N.N.E. from Bridlington, and at it is a station on the Scarborough, Bridlington, and Hull Railway.

The Wesleyan Chapel was built in 1825; and the Primative Methodist Chapel in 1843. The National School was erected by subscription in 1854. The Manor House, a neat stone building in the village, is occupied by its owner, T. S. Champion, Esq. The Parsonage House, built in 1845-6, is a neat brick building, a little east from the church; Bempton Grange, about a mile north of the village, is in the occupation of Mr. Thos. Roundhill.

In a close a little S.W. of the church, in a part of the parish called Newsholme, lies interred the body of Henry Jarrett, who died Jany. 14th, 1721. He was Lord of the Manor of Bempton-cum-Newsholme.

The poor parishioners participate in Walmsley's gift, as noticed with Flamborough, and have the interest of £10. left by two unknown donors.

BESSINGBY.-The area of this parish is 1,230 acres; population, in 1851, 92 souls; rateable value, £2,677.; amount of assessed property, £2,045. Harrington Hudson, Esq., upon attaining his majority, in 1856, will be Lord. The Living is a Perpetual Curacy, valued at £5. 6s. 5d., and returned at £59. per ann. The Rev. N. C. Strickland is the Incumbent. The tithes were commuted in 1766. The Church (St. Magnus) is a small structure, without aisles or a tower, and was rebuilt in 1766. In the chancel are several monuments to the Hudson family; one of which is a beautiful marble tablet, with a basso relieve of a female expiring in the arms of her attendants. The east window, of three lights, is filled with stained glass, inscribed to the memory of H. G. F. Hudson, Esq. The font is of considerable antiquity.

The Village is small, and enveloped in trees, and stands about 1 1/2 miles S.W. of Bridlington. There is an ancient draw. well in it. Bessingby Hall, the former seat of the Hudsons, is pleasantly situated, on high ground, near the village, and is at present occupied by F. Wilkinson, Esq. The Manor House, a long brick building in the village, is the residence of Mr. Bourdass, farmer. The residence of Mr. John Kingston, farmer, near the church, is an ancient house in the shape of the letter T, having walls of nearly a yard in thickness. It is stated that about 50 years ago some human remains were discovered beneath the floor of this house. Wan Dale Farm, 1 mile N.W. of Bessingby, is now in the occupation of Mr. Francis Blakestone

BOYNTON.-This parish, which is situated on the road from Bridlington to Malton, comprises 2,690 acres, the property of Sir George Strickland, and a population of 113 souls. The rateable value is £3,183. The Strickland family were anciently seated in Westmorland, but the principal branch of it has been settled here for more than two centuries. Sir George Strickland, the present owner of Boynton, is the 7th Baronet, and son of the 6th Baronet, by the daughter and co. heir of Nathaniel Cholmeley, Esq., of Whitby and Howsham. He was born at Welburn, Kirby-Moorside, in 1782; married in 1818, the only child of the Rev. Charles Constable, of Wassand; and succeeded his father in 1834. The first Baronet was summoned to the Upper House, during Cromwell's protectorate, as Lord Strickland. The heir to the title and estates is Chas. Wm. Strickland, Esq., born at Hildenley in 1819.

The Living is a Discharged Vicarage, in the patronage of Sir G. Strickland (the impropriator), and Incumbency of the Rev. Francis Simpson. It is valued in the Liber Regis at £7. 14s. 2d. and returned at £141. per ann. The impropriate and vicarial tithes were commuted for land, and a money payment, at the enclosure in 1777. The Church (St. Andrew) was rebuilt in the early part of the last century, and consists of a nave and chancel, with a handsome tower at the west end, embattled and pinnacled. The interior is neat. A portion of the centre of the edifice is supported by four semi-Gothic columns, and the chancel is separated from the nave by iron railings. The chancel contains several monuments to the Strickland family. The font, which is in the centre of the church, is circular.

The Village is small and well wooded, and stands about 2 1/2 miles W. by N. of Bridlington. The Parsonage House is a neat edifice north of the church.

Boynton Hall the seat of Sir G. Strickland, is a lofty and handsome mansion of red brick, beautifully situated upon an eminence, in a richly wooded park, on the acclivities of which are some fine plantations, and a large sheet of water ornaments the grounds. The interior of the mansion is very elegantly furnished and decorated, and contains a small collection of marble statues, among which is a Juno, 4 feet 10 inches in height, carrying a fawn under her arm, which is encircled in a wreath of fruit and flowers This statue was found in 1777, at the Terre tre treste, four miles from Rome, on the Praenestian way, laid on a tesselated pavement, probably the temple to which it belonged. There is also a finely sculptured head of M. Junius Brutus, of the size of life. And among the other curiosities preserved here, is the thigh bone of the famous outlaw "Little John," measuring 38 inches, taken out of his grave at Hathersage, in Derbyshire, some 70 or 80 years ago. On an elevated ridge south of the hall is a pavilion, the upper room of which is supported by a circular colonnade, and ascended by steps. From this room is a very extensive prospect, both by sea and land, particularly of Bridlington Bay and the eastern acclivities of the Wolds, rising in some places gradually and in others abruptly from the coast.

A number of flint instruments used by the ancient British inhabitants of this district, have been picked up from time to time by Mr. Joseph Barugh, on the farm called Charleston, in his occupation.

The poor parishioners have the interest of £50., left by an unknown donor, and they participate with those of Carnaby in the interest of £60., left by Elizabeth Letitia Strickand in 1803.

BRIDLINGTON.

The market town and port of Bridlington is situated near the German Ocean, and gives name to the bay, of which the promontory called Flamborough Head, forms the northern extremity. The place is supposed to have derived its name from its Saxon possessor, who was probably named Bridla. Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.,I:.- in a note to Mr. Edward Tindall, of

* Author of The Celt the Roman, and the Saxon; and the wanaerinos of an Anti-quary. The contents of Mr Wright’s note was obligingly communicated to us by Mr Tindall.

Bridlington, says, "In the Anglo-Saxon the sons and descendants of a man (or his family) taken in the widest sense of the word, were distinguished by adding ing to the end of his name; thus, a son or descendant of Alfred would be Alfreding, and his family, or descendants by blood, would be spoken of generally as the Alfredings. In the same way the Bridlings would be the sons or descendants of some man named Bridla. Bridlington would be the chief residence of these Bridlings, who were no doubt the family or clan of one of the chiefs, whose name was Bridla, who came over in the Saxon invasion, and obtaining this district by his arms, established here the chief settlement of his family." In the Domesday Survey the place is called Bretlinton, and the name has been spelt at various times, Berlinton, Brellington, and Britlington; and away from the town it is now called Burlington, though the Government authorities have within a few years spelt it Bridlington.

The manor of Bridlington was given by William the Conqueror to Earl Morcar, and subsequently, upon his attainder in l072, it, with other extensive possessions in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, was granted by William, to Gilbert de Gant, or Gaunt, one of the Flemish nobility, nearly related to him, by whom he was accompanied on his expedition to England. Gilbert was succeeded by his son Walter de Gant, who here founded and endowed a Priory, on a scale correspondent to his power and possessions.

To the soke of Bridlington appertained the townships of, Martone, Basinghebi, Estone, Bovington, Grendale, Spretone, Bocketon, Flaistone, Stacktone, Foxhele, Elestolf, Galmeton, Widefeston. No names are now to be found in this neighbourhood corresponding with Elestoif and Widfeston which have probably been seated on the shore and destroyed by the encroachments of the sea. After the dissolution of religious houses the manor and rectory of Bridlington, which had belonged to the Priory, became vested in the Crown, and in the 8th of Eliz. (1560), was granted by lease to 12 inhabitants of the town for a term of 40 years; but at the end of 25 years the lease became forfeited for the non-payment of the stipulated rental, and writs were issued against the defaulters for arrears of £2,000. The lordship was then granted on lease to John Stanhope, Esq., at the same rental as held by the former lessees, and four years afterwards (1505) to 10 inhabitants of Bridlington for 41 years. This lease, like the former ones, appears not to have been fulfilled, as James I., in 1624, conferred the manor on Sir J. Ramsey, recently created Earl of Holderness; and his son, Sir George Ramsey, of Coldstream, in Scotland, sold it, in 1663, for £3,260. to Wm. Corbett and 12 other inhabitants, in behalf of themselves and all the other tenants and freeholders within the manor. By a deed bearing date May 6th, 1636, Corbett and his associates were acknowledged joint lord-feoffees of the manor, and were empowered to call to their assistance 12 other of the inhabitants, to manage the affairs of the town. When the lord-feoffees should be reduced to six, the survivors were directed to elect seven others from among the assistants, and afterwards choose so many of the inhabitants as should restore their number to 12. The feoffees were also directed annually to elect one of their number as chief Lord of the Manor, in whose name the courts should be called, and the business of the town transacted. The election is still continued on the 2nd of February. The manor, in all its changes, was charged with an annual fee farm rent of £152. 17s. 5.3/4d., which is now paid to Lord Henniker, Major House, Stoneham, Suffolk. In all respects the chief Lord possesses similar powers and jurisdiction in the parish, to those exercised by the Mayor of a Corporation, with the exception that he is not necessarily a magistrate. The lordship contains upwards of 2,000 acres, and has been enclosed, pursuant to an Act of Parliament passed in 1768.

The parish includes the towns of Bridlington and Bridlington Quay, the townships of Buckton, Hildenthorpe with Wilsthorpe, Sewerby with Marton, Grindall, and Speeton. According to the census return of 1841, the area of the entire parish is 12,410 acres; but the census return of 1851 makes it 13,230 acres, including sea coast. In this account of the parish we shall take the latter as our guide. The population of the parish in 1851 was 6,846 persons, Viz. :- 3,317 males, and 3,520 females. The amount of assessed property in 1815 was £17,434.

The Priory.-There was a church at Bridlington at the time of the Domesday Survey, and in the survey of the monastic buildings, taken before the dissolution, mention is made of a building on the south side of the monastery, used by the Prior and Convent as a bakehouse and brewhouse, which, according to tradition, was sometime a nunnery. This leads to the supposition that a Convent had existed in the place prior to the Conquest, which was probably destroyed by the Danes; and in all probability the ancient Saxon church of Bridlington, noticed in Domesday, had been appropriated to it. Early in the reign of Henry I. the above-mentioned Walter de Gaunt greatly improved the town, and endowed the church of St. Mary, at Bridlington, with revenues for the maintenance of a body of Canons Regular, of the Order of St. Augustine-a religious body introduced into England about the year 1114. The original endowment, according to the foundation charter, consisted of all that the founder possessed in the town-ship of Bridlington, vis. :- thirteen carucates of land, together with certain mills adjacent to the same lands; also his interest in certain lands in the hands of vassals at Bessingby, Hilderthorpe, Eston, Grindal, Buckton, and Righton, which those vassals had themselves given. Moreover he gave to the church and canons, the churches of Edenham, With, Filey, Swaldale, Willoughby, and Ganton, and half the church of South Ferriby. This charter was witnessed by Thurstan, Archbishop of York, and several others. The immense possessions which this Priory afterwards acquired, in almost every township in the rural deanery of Dykering in which it was situated, as well as generally throughout the whole extent of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, have been enumerated at great length by Burton. Among the various privileges granted to the Canons by the charter of King Stephen, that monarch concedes to them "the port and harbour of Bridlington, with all kinds of wreck of the sea which shall in future happen, or issue, in all places within the dykes called Earl Dyke and Flaynburgh Dyke." King John, on the 6th of Dec., 1200, granted to God and the church of St. Mary at Bridlington; and the Canons there serving God, a fair in every year, at Bridlington, on the eve, and feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, and one market to be held there every week, on the Saturday. At the dissolution the annual revenue of the establishment was £682 13s. 9d. in the gross, and £547. 6s. 1d. net rental. Among the Harleian Charters in the British Museum is an imperfect impression of the common seal of this Priory, together with a counter seal. The former exhibits figures of a male and female, which seem to represent Our Saviour and the Blessed Virgin seated; and the latter the figure of the Virgin and Child.

The following enumeration of the Priors of Bridlington is taken from Burton's -Mionasticon Eboracense.-Guicheman, or Wikeman, flourished in 1110; Adebold, died in 1139; Bernard occurs in 1145; Robert "the- Scribe," so named from his having written and compiled many great works, occurs in 1100; Gregory, 1181; Hugh in 1190; Helyas about 1200; Hubert occurs in 1218; Thomas, in 1240; John, his successor, occur" in 1252; Galfrid de Nafferton, Prior, was summoned to Parliament at Westminster, 23rd Edward I. (1295); Gerard de Burton was summoned to Parliament in 1299; Peter de Wyrethorpe occurs in 1315; Rt. de Scardeburgh elected in 1321; Peter de Appleby was confirmed Prior in 1342; Peter de Gotes was installed in 1356, and died in 1360; he was succeeded by William de Driffleld; John de Twenge, 1361; John de Bridlington was confirmed in 1366; William de Newbold, 1370; John de Guisburne occurs in 1420; Robt. Warde was confirmed in 1429; Robt. W Ily was elected in 1444; Peter Ellarde was invested with the chief authority in 1462; Robert Bristwyk in 1472; John Gurzon in 1488; Rt. Danby in 1498; John English in 1506; John Holmpton in 1510; Wm. Brownesflete in 1521; Wm. Wode, or Wolde, was installed in 1531, and having engaged in Aske's rebellion, he was attainted of high treason, and executed at Tyburn in 1537. On the defection of this Prior the possessions of the monastery were declared to be forfeited to the King, but the dissolusion of the house did not take place till the following year. The Priory, with its contiguous offices, was demolished in 1539.

The buildings of the Priory are supposed to have been very fine. The commanding situation of the institution, at the east end of the town, gave it a fine prospect of the sea, but at the same time exposed it to the attacks of the enemy's ships, which frequently entered the harbour; it was therefore, in 1388, by permission of Richard II., defended with fortifications, the only remains of which are an arched gateway, which, together with the nave of the Priory Church (now the parish church), will be described hereafter.

Bridlington so flourished during the existence of the Priory, that the site of the town was nearly the same 300 years ago, as at the present day.

The Town of Bridlington is pleasantly situated on a gentle acclivity, about a mile from the sea shore, and is distant from London, via Lincoln, 208 miles, via York, 238 miles; 12, N.E. of Great Driffleld; 31, N. by E. of Hull; 40, EN .E. of York; and 18, S.E. by. S. of Scarborough; being in 54 degrees 13 minutes north latitude, and in 16 minutes west longitude.

Bridlington Quay is a handsome sea port and bathing place, situated in the recess of the beautiful bay to which it gives name, and is distant from Bridlington about 1 mile. Both places form the Township of Bridlington, the area of which is 3,127 acres, including sea shore. The population of the township in 1851 was 5,839 souls, more than one third of whom were at the Quay. Rateable value, £17,245. Both places are well built and respectable.

Bridlington consists principally of three streets, from which several smaller streets diverge. The houses are in general ancient, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. The town and Quay are lighted with gas, from works erected midway between both, in 1833, at the cost of £4,000. raised in £10. shares. There is a good market on Saturdays, and there are fairs for cattle, horses, &c., on the Monday and Tuesday before Whit Sunday, and on the 21st and 22nd of October. These fairs, and doubtless, too, the market, were formerly held in the large open area called "the Green," within the ancient precincts of the close of the Priory, between the arched gateway and the church, but the fairs are now held on the road leading from the top of the Market Place to Flamborough. Bridlington is one of the polling places at the election of the Parliamentary representatives of the East Riding.

The trade in corn is considerable, and in 1826 a Corn Exchange was built in the Market Place. There are several windmills for grinding corn, as well as some water mills, in the vicinity, and at the Quay is a steam mill, erected in 1837, the property of Mr. George Gray. Malt and ale were formerly considered the staple commodities of this place, and large quantities of each were annually shipped to London; but this trade has greatly declined, and most of the kilns have been taken down or applied to other purposes.

The Living is a Perpetual Curacy, rated in the Liber Regis at £8.3 and now returned at £130. per annum net. At the dissolution of the Priory the impropriate Rectory came to the Crown, and was afterwards granted to various persons. The advowson was given to the Archbishop, but was trans ferred in 1747 to the Rev. Matthew Buck, and his heirs, in consideration of a donation of £200. for the augmentation of the living. The benefice was also augmented with £400. of Queen Anne's Bounty, in 1747 and 1769, and with £2,600. Parliamentary grants, in 1812 and 1817. The present patrons -are the Trustees of the late Rev. Chas. Simeon, of Cambridge, and the Rev. Henry Frederick Barnes is the Incumbent. The tithes were Commuted, under an enclosure Act, in 1768. John Kirby, Esq., is the impropriator.

The Parsonage House in Westgate, is a commodious residence, lately erected at the expense of about £1,000., raised by subscription.

The Parish Church (St. Mary) consists of the nave alone of the Priory Church, which has been converted into a nave and chancel, with aisles. When perfect, this church rivalled the noble Minster of Beverley, not only in dimensions, but in beauty of construction. It is now rather an unsightly church, but to the admirer of ancient architecture, the remains possess that magnificence of design and beauty of detail, which render such relics so valuable to the artist and the archaeologist. The building is entirely in the pointed style; the greater part of the nave appears to have been erected between the reigns of the first and third Edwards; the aisle showing the lancet windows of the first reign, and the clerestory the more elaborate tracery which prevailed in the time of the last named monarch. The west front displays a centre flanked by towers, of which the lower stories only now remain; but the principal tower appears to have been in the centre of the church, between the nave and the choir, now gone. The north western tower is now unroofed, and the arches connecting it with the north aisle are built up; and on the top of the basement of the south-west tower an octagon turret of brick, with a leaden cupola, has been erected for the reception of three bells, procured in 1763, the tenor weighing 1,199 pounds. This paltry turret very much disfigures the venerable structure to which it is attached. The principal entrance, or great western door, is highly ornamented, and some part of the exquisite foliage with which it was once adorned, is still in good preservation, though much has been defaced by the destroying hand of time. The smaller entrance in the southern tower, has likewise been lavishly ornamented, and is yet in a state of tolerable preservation. Each of these entrances is surmounted by a canopy, enriched with crockets, and above the arch, and on each side of the principal doorway, is a small niche for the reception of a statue. The northern angle, usually called the old steeple, is in a different style of architecture, and apparently a century earlier; the tower having formerly been entered by a circular arched doorway, now walled up. Above the principal entrance is a large pointed window of seven lights, divided by two transoms. This window has recently been restored, and filled with exquisitely stained glass manufactured by Wailes.* Several other praiseworthy restorations have been effected in the church during the last few years, and are still going forward. The porch on the north side has been an elegant specimen of the architecture of the 14th century. The windows are all beautiful specimens of the Pointed style, but the east end having being piled from the ruins of the church and monastery, exhibits no order of architecture, and is supported by two enormous buttresses, as solid and unsightly as could well be reared.** The interior dimensions of the building, as it now stands, is 188 feet in length, 68 in breadth, and 69 in height. The body is divided from the aisles by ten pointed arches, resting. on a union of cylinders, and on the south side some of them rest on panelled

* This splendid window is 55 feet high from the base to the apex, 20 feet wide below the transom, and 31 feet above, and forms, in the words of Mr. Wailes, "the largest and finest Perpendicular window that has been put up in England for the last 300 years. The painted glass represents the Crucifixion, and figures of Our Saviour, the Blessed Virgin, the Evangelists, several saints and angels, symbols of the passions, &C Several portions of the glazing were erected by private individuals, as memorials of their departed friends and relatives. The handsome elliptical window over the smaller entrance at the west end, was restored and glazed with painted glass in l854, at the cost of Yarburgh Yarburgh, Esq., of Sewerby House. The five principal compartments contain the Annunciation, the Salutation, the Shepherds guided by the star in the east, the Presentation, and the Baptism of Christ.

** Against the south wall, towards the west, was built the Prior's Lodge, or residence; the hall having an ascent of twenty steps on the south. In the wall of the church the pillars and groined arches of the vaulted apartment below it still remain. Eastward of the Prior's Lodge, along the south wall of the church, may be seen ranges of stone abutments, for supporting the beams of the roof of one of the Cloisters, which were so situated as to connect the lodge with the church, and the other domestic buildings of the monastery. On the east side of the cloister square was the Dormitory, occupying the portion of. what would otherwise have been the south transept; and beyond it, as a building detached from the rest of the fabric, the Chapter House. The Refectory was on the south side of the cloister. The buildings of the Priory thus occupying the area south of the church, the ancient burying ground was therefore entirely on the north aide; and beyond the street which bounds the churchyard on the north, and surrounding a large piece of water, called the Green Dyke, were the barns and stables, granary, and other agricultural premises belonging to the Convent. When Queen Elizabeth granted the manor of Bridlington to John Stanhope, she empowered him to take all the old stones on the site of the Priory remaining, "and not yet sold or laid out," for the purpose of rebuilding the pier, "then in great ruin and decay."

piers. On the right and left, immediately within the principal entrance, are two enormous pillars, which appear to have been raised for the support of two western towers, of which not even a vestige is now to be found. In the chancel are four pillars equal in magnitude to the principal ones at the west end, undoubtedly raised to sustain a part of the pressure of a tower in the centre of the conventual church ; and this tower has been connected with those of the west end by galleries, still remaining, above the arches on one side of the nave. About One third of the building is fitted up for divine service. At large wooden partition separates the nave from the ebmieci. The pulpit, a hexagon of old oak, exhibits some fine carving in alto relievo. The font is plain, and of Derbyshire marble. There are few monuments either remarkable for antiquity or for beauty; the former have been destroyed by the violent zeal of the Puritans, and of the latter, no superior specimens have been exhibited. The burial ground was enlarged by the purchase of land, on the south and east sides of the church, in 1809, which was consecrated in 1813. In preparing the land for sepulchral purposes, the foundations and other remains of the Priory were dug up. Stone coffins and other relics have at various periods been dug up in the vicinity of the church.

The precincts of the church are entered by a noble gateway of Pointed architecture, now called the Bayle Gate, from the Norman Baile, a prison, or place of security. This was the principal entrance to the Priory. Most of the larger monasteries were furnished with such an appendage, and it is somewhat remarkable that in several instances these gateways escaped the general demolition of the rest of the monastic buildings. Those remaining at St. Albans and Ely are similar to the present one. The gateway at Bridlington is a large square castellated building, of free stone, beneath which is a splendid arched entrance, with a fine groined roof. On the outer side, next the town, there is a greater arch and a postern; the former ornamented with two broad hollow mouldings, in which, at intervals, are placed leaves, flowers, and grotesque heads. The upper part of the building on this side has been rebuilt with brick, so as greatly to disfigure its beauty. The arch, on the inner side, is elegantly wrought, below its spring, with two compartments of trefoil headed panelling, one above the other, surmounted by a narrow band of quatrefoils. The four curios corbels, from which the groined roof of the gateway springs, represent four figures in a sitting posture. On each side of the thoroughfare is a strong and gloomy apartment; that on the north was long used as a place of temporary confinement for delinquents, and is called the Kidcott, or Kitcote. Above are small chambers, and over the whole an apartment now used as a Town Hall. The National School was for some time held in this building.* Of the religious guilds or fraternities, which formerly existed in Bridlington, little is known. The house in the High Street, now in the occupation of Mr. Edward Tindall, is the remains of the Guild Hall of the fraternity of the Holy Trinity, and the only remnant of their buildings left.

Christ Church.-This handsome District Church was erected at Bridlington Quay, on a site given by John Rickaby, Esq. The building was commenced in July, 1840, and opened for divine service on the 23rd of May following but it was enlarged in 1851. The cost of the whole, about £3,600., was raised partly by subscription, and partly by grants from the Incorporated Society, and the Commissioners for Building Churches. The date of the formation of the district allotted to this church, is Feb. 24th, 1843. The population of the district, in 1851, was 2,458 souls. The Living is a Curacy, the nett value of which is returned at £150. per ann.; in the patronage of the Incumbent of Bridlington, and Incumbency of the Rev. James Thompson.

The Edifice is of stone, and is cruciform having a nave, side aisles, transepts, and chancel, with a vestry on the north side. The style of architecture is Early English, and all the gables are crowned with neat crosses. At the west end of the south aisle is a small tower, containing two bells. The interior of the church is very neatly fitted up, chiefly with single seats. Four arches on each side, springing from octagonal columns, separate the aisles from the nave; the chancel arch is fine; the roofs are open to the timbers; the pulpit is sexagonal; the font is octagonal and neat; and on a small gallery at the west end is a good organ, presented in 1847, by Joseph Gee, Esq. Beneath the east window is a handsome arcade of five arches, for the Decalogue, Creed, and Lord's Prayer.

The Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, and Primitive Methodists, have each a good chapel in Bridlington; and the Wesleyans, Primitive, and Reform Methodists, have chapels at the Quay.

In connection with the Wesleyan Chapel at the Quay is a good School, erected in 1810, on ground given by John Coverley, Esq. There is an old Quakers' Meeting House in Bridlington, but no congregation.

The Grammar School, for twenty boys, was founded and endowed with a rent charge of £40. per ann., in 1637, by William Hustler, a native of Bridlington. There are extensive National Schools, for both sexes, at Bridlington and at the Quay; and a Knitting School, for twelve poor girls, is endowed

* The gatehouse of religions houses often contained a chapel, or had a chapel annexed to it, in which mass was celebrated at an early hour, for the benefit of the labourers and servants connected with the establishment.

with a rent charge of £40. per ann., arising from an estate at Birdsall, left by William Bower, in 1670.

The York Union, and the Bridlington and Driffield Banks, have branches here; and there is also a Savings Bank, in which the amount deposited during the year 1854 was £7,634. 16s. 8d.; and the amount paid during the same year was £5,643. 2s. 1d. The amount deposited since the opening of the institution, in 1837, was £101,412. 18s. 4d.

The County Court is held monthly, in a room in the yard of the Black Lion Inn, William Raines, Esq., Judge; Clerk, Mr. Sidney Taylor, who is likewise Town Clerk and Clerk to the Magistrates.

Petty Sessions, for the division of Dickering, are held in the County Court room every Saturday. The Gaol, or Lock-up-house, in Nungate, in which the superintendent constable resides, was erected in 1844; previous to which an apartment in the old Bayle Gate was used as a prison.

The Bridlington Agricultural Society held its 20th annual exhibition of stock, poultry, and implements, in July 1855, when the sum of £187. 10s. was offered for public competition. Ralph Creyke, Esq., of Raweliffe Hall, was the president of the year. Mr. Robert Allison, secretary. There is likewise a Floral and Horticultural Society in Bridlington.

The Bridlington Mutual Improvement Society was established in October, 1854, under the patronage of Yarburgh Yarburgh, Esq., and presidency of Thos. Prickett, Esq., and promises to be very successful. The new society is a reorganisation of the old Mechanics' Institution, which was founded in 1838, but which had been inactive for the last few years. The opening lecture of the new body was delivered in the Town Hall, by Mr. J. Hind,. of Beverley, on "Newspapers and Newspaper Literature," on the 18th of Dec., 1854. The vice presidents are the Rev. H. F. Barnes, and T. Harlaud, Esq.

The Temperance Hall, situated in St. John Street, was erected in 1854, at a cost of about £450. It is a neat brick building, and the lecture room measures 60 feet by 30, and 20 feet from the floor to the ceiling. The foundation stone of the building was laid on the 24th of May, 1853, by the late F. Hopwood, Esq., of Hull; and the Hall was opened on the 13th of Nov., 1854, with a public meeting, at which E. F. Collins, Esq., of Hull, presided. The Bridlington Temperance Society has been in existence for upwards of 20 years, and has been instrumental in accomplishing a large amount of good.

The Bridlington Poor Law Union comprehends 32 parishes, and embraces an area of 95 square miles. The Union Workhouse was erected in 1847, at a cost of about £5,000., and will accommodate 150 inmates. Chairman of the Board of Guardians, Thomas Prickett, Esq.; Chaplain, Rev. H. F. Barnes; Clerk to the Guardians, Mr. R. Millner; Workhouse Master, Mr. T. Harper.

Bridlington Quay, or Port, which about three quarters of a century ago was an inconsiderable village, is now a handsome town, overlooking the beautiful bay of Bridlington, and situated partly on the lofty sea cliffs, through which a road has been cut, with a gradual descent to the piers and the sands. The streets are remarkably spacious, the houses in general are well built, and the place is much frequented for sea bathing, and contains hot and cold baths, fitted up for the accommodation of visitors. About a quarter of a mile west of the Quay is a chalybeate spring, in much repute for its medicinal properties; and the harbour presents the striking phenomenon of an ebbing and flowing spring of fine fresh water, sufficient to supply the whole navy of England.*

The Harbour was anciently composed of wooden piers, which gradually gave way to stone work. Several Acts of Parliament have been obtained from time to time, for rebuilding and repairing it. In 1837 an Act was obtained for improving and rendering it more commodious and safe as a harbour of refuge. It is now formed by two piers, which extend a considerable distance into the sea. The new north pier was finished in 1842, and the south pier was completed in 1848, the estimated cost of the two being about £120,000. These piers afford an agreeable promenade, and command extensive prospects, especially the northern one; from which are fine views of the bay and Flamborough Head. The harbour affords a retreat to numerous coasting vessels during contrary winds, and the bay, protected from the north-west winds by the coast, and from the north winds by the noble promontory of Flamborough Head, offers safe anchorage for ships in gales of wind. The harbour is dry at low water, and has a spring-tide flow of 18 feet at the entrance, which gradually diminishes in proceeding upwards. The port is a member of the port of Hull, but as a commercial port it holds a very inferior rank. The number of vessels belonging to the port in 1854, was only nine, of the average burthen of seventy tons.

* This copious fountain was discovered in July, 1811, by the late Mr. Benjamin Milne, collector of customs at this port, and to his scientific genius and unwearied perseverance, Bridlington is indebted for many of its most beneficial establishments; and even the lighthouse at Flamborough owes its origin to his activity and benevolence. The spring under notice was found at the depth of 43 feet, of which 28 feet were solid clay, and the last 15 feet a cretaceous flinty gravel. The water begins to flow as soon as the level of the tide has arrived at about four feet beneath that of the bore, and continues the discharge until the tide has receded to its former level. The quality of the water makes as near an approach to purity as it is perhaps possible for water to obtain, without being submitted to distillation.

During the period of the great civil war between Charles I. and his Parliament, this place served as the point of debarkation for those arms and military stores which the Queen purchased in Holland with the crown jewels.* Amongst the most zealous and enterprising of Charles' adherents, was Richd. Boyle, Earl of Cork, who, for his courage and constancy, received the dignity of an English Earldom, under the title of the Earl of Burlington.** In 1757, on the passing of the Militia Act, an alarming riot took place here, during which the rioters broke open several granaries, and committed other excesses. In 1779 a desperate naval fight took place off the coast, between a small squadron, commanded by the noted pirate Paul Jones, and two British ships of war.*** (See vol. i., page 271.)

The Victoria Rooms, at the Quay, were erected by subscription in 1848, at a cost of about £8,000. The building is in the Tudor style, with a tower, and is embattled, and contains a concert, news, billiard, and refreshment rooms, with a picture gallery.

The Station on the Scarborough, Bridlington, and Hull branch of the North Eastern Railway, is situated between Bridlington and the Quay. The frequent erection of new houses on the road between the two towns, will, in a few years, form a continuous street between them.

Few places present a more inviting beach than that which descends from the cliff to the sea at Bridlington Quay; and the gentle declivity of the sands is peculiarly favourable to sea bathing. Here many elegant and

* An account of her Majesty’s debarkation, together with her letter to the King describing the dastardly attack of Admiral Batten, upon the house in which she was lodged, is given in vol i., p.237 of this work. Tradition points out the old house with three gables (at the end of Prince Street), adjoining the Quay side, as the one in which the Queen reposed; and Bassingby or Bessingby Beck, beneath the bank of which her Majesty took refuge, is at the top of the harbour.

** Rd. Boyle, the 3rd Earl, born in 1605, was a celebrated architect (See vol. i., page 595), and is said to have possessed every quality of genius, except envy. Wm. Cavendish, F.R.S., D.C.L., the second Earl of Burlington, of the last creation, is son of the Hon. Wm. Cavendish, by the eldest daughter of the first Lord Lismore. He was horn in London in 1808; married, in 1820, the fourth daughter of the late Earl of Carlisle; and succeeded his Grandfather in 1834. He is Chancellor of the University of London.

*** About 50 years ago, his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence, afterwards Wm. IV., when a midshipman, landed at Bridlington Quay, where his ship had been brought up. Wishing to see Beverley and its far-famed Minster, he took horse from thence, and received a rather severe injury by a fall from his steed, when within two miles of Beverley. The accident happened at Sandholme, near the Toll Bar. The royal sailor was carried to the house of the late Wm. Simpson, at Sandholme, and from thence conveyed to the residence of the late Dr. Johnson, Hen Gate, Beverley. where he remained until his recovery was completed.

Valuable specimens of minerals and fossils are found, which seem to give interest to the shop of the lapidary, and to swell the varieties in the museum of the collector. In the vicinity the head of an enormous elk was discovered, the extremities of the horns being more than eleven feet apart.

The various springs in the neighbourhood accelerate the destruction of the cliffs, which, being lofty, tumble in immense masses on the sands; and so great has been the quantity of land thus lost, that a row of houses on the verge of the cliff was taken down in 1819, though there had formerly been a street, with a carriage road, between it and the sea. Two houses were washed down in 1837. The neighbourhood abounds with pleasant walks and rides, commanding extensive and varied prospects.

The Public Charities of Bridlington, which chiefly consists of the rents of lands, &c., now yield an annual income of £237. per ann. But the property belonging to these charities is about to be re-let for about £378. per annum.

Eminent men.-Wm. de Newburgh, a celebrated monkish historian in the reign of King John, was a native of Bridlington, but having become a Canon of Newburgh, took his surname from thence. His works have been published by Hearne.

Sir Geo. Ripley, a celebrated alchymist, was a Canon in this Priory, and is said to have been a native of Bridlington. Having obtained a dispensation from the Pope to leave this monastery, he became a Carmelite anchorite at Boston, where he wrote twenty-five books, of which the chief was his "Compound of Alchymie." He died in 1490.

Wm. Kent, an eminent painter and architect, as well as the inventor of landscape gardening, was born here in 1685, and died in London in 1748. 'Mahomet imagined an Elysium," writes Walpole, "but Kent created many."

Buctkon Township. -Area, 2,047 acres, including sea coast; rateable value, £2,249.; assessed property, £2,185.; population, 182 souls. The manor and the greater part of the township belongs to the trustees of Mark Foulis, Esq. The Hamlet is situated about 3 1/2 miles N. of Bridlington. The School is endowed with a rent charge of £2. per ann., out of the estate of the Foulis family, but the donor is unknown.

Buckton Hall, erected in 1744, and now a farmhouse, is a large brick building, with stone dressings, four stories in height.

Easten Hamlet, 1 mile W. of Bridlington, belongs to the township of Bridlington. It contains 800 acres, in two farms, the property of Sir Geo. Strickland. Rateable value, £1,000.; amount of assessed property, £1,005.

Grindall Chapelry. -Thc acreage of this township is 2,415; and the number of its inhabitants in 1851 was 153. The chief proprietors of the soil are Yarburgh Yarburgh, Esq. (Lord of the Manor), and Sir Geo Strickland. In 1843, 1047 acres of common, or waste land, were enclosed.

The Village is small, and neatly built, and stands about 4 miles N.W. Bridlington. The Living is a Perpetual Curacy, annexed to that of Sewerby and now returned at £100. Patron and impropriator, Y. Yarburgh, Esq.

The Chapel, rebuilt in 1830, is a low mean edifice, Consisting of a nave and chancel, with a low square tower containing one bell. There is a place of worship for Methodists, erected in 1826. Some fragments of tesselated pavement were found here in 1839.

The Manor House, the residence of Mr. John Stubbings, farmer, is an ancient stone building. North Dale House is in the occupation of Mr. G Crowe, farmer.

Hilderthorpe with Wilsthorpe Township -This township, which is situated on the sea coast, contains 712 acres, and a population of 147 persons. Rateable value, £652.; amount of assessed property, £1,034 Hilderthorpe stands about 1 1/2 mile S. of Bridlington, adjoining the Quay, Hilderthorpe House, a large brick building, is now occupied as a farm house. The land belongs to H. Hudson, Esq. Wilsthorpe consists of a farm and manor, longing to Sir G. Strickland, and now in the occupation of Mr. Tom Woodcock, who resides in the Manor House. From foundations of buildings discovered, it is evident that several houses stood here at a former period.

Sewerby with Marton Township.- Area of the township, 2,173 acres, including sea coast; rateable value, £3,220.; amount of assessed property £2,205.; population, 350 persons. The manor and nearly all the property in Sewerby belongs to Yarburgh Yarburgh, Esq.

The Village of Sewerby is small, and stands pleasantly about 1 1/2 mile N.E. from Bridlington. An old writer, in reference to Sewerby, says "Suerby situate near the sea where the shore begins to shoot out into the ocean, and makes that bay which some translators of Ptolemy render Portuosus sinus and others, Salutarus; but neither of them expresses the Greek original better than this village in the return of it, Suerby; for that which is safe and free from danger is by the Britons and Gauls called Suer, as we also call it in English, deriving it probably from the Britons.

By an Order in Council, dated August 31st, 1849, the townships of Sewerby and Grindall were formed into an Ecclesiastical District, and an elegant District Church was erected at Sewerby, at the expense of Yarburgh Yarburgh Esq. The edifice, which was consecrated on the 27th of April, 1848, and is dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, comprises a nave and chancel, a small vestry, a chapel on the north side, which contains the sittings of the founder and his household, and on the south side, at the junction of the nave and body, a small, tower and spire containing two bells. On each side of the nave are three single lights; on the north side is a very elegant doorway, with a semicircular head resting on circular shafts; the same side of the chancel exhibits an arcade of seven circular arches, supported by small circular pillars; and on the south side of the chancel is a similar arcade of six arches, and a neat doorway. At the east end is an arcade of three large and two smaller arches, with an elegantly carved circular window, above the other lights. There is an arcade of three arches on each side of the fine centre window of the west end. Around the several arches of the doorways are appropriate scriptural passages cut in stone. The roof of the building is high pitched, and the gables are crowned with crosses. The interior is very elegantly furnished and finished. A handsome and finely carved circular headed arch divides the body from the chancel. All the seats &c. are of carved oak; and the pulpit is octagonal. In the east end of the chancel are three lights of stained glass, representing the Crucifixion, Ascension, and the Holy Family; and two smaller lights in each side contain the Four Evangelists. The floor of the chancel is laid with encaustic tiles. In the side chapel is a neat tablet to the memory of John Greame, Esq., and Elizabeth his wife, the father and mother of the founder. The stained glass in the large west window represents St. John the Evangelist; and above it is a small light containing the Baptism of Christ. The other windows are glazed with coloured glass, without subjects. The font is a massive circular basin of Caen stone, highly ornamented with carved work, and around its rim is the verse, "Suffer little children," &c. The roofs, of oak, are open to the timbers. Indeed the whole structure displays the most profuse and elegant workman-ship that can well be imagined, and must have cost a very large sum of money. The Living is a Perpetual Curacy, in the gift of Mr. Yarburgh, and incumbency of the Rev. Mortimer Tylee. Its value is £100. per annum.

A short distance from the church is a handsome and commodious School, for both sexes, with a residence for the teachers, also built at the cost of Mr. Yarburgh, and supported by that gentleman. This building is of brick, with cut stone dressings, and is in the ecclesiastical style of architecture.

There is a small Methodist Chapel here.

Sewerby House, the seat of Yarburgh Yarburgh, Esq., is a noble mansion, erected about 200 years ago. It commands a fine view of the sea, Flamborough Head, &c.; and the park in which it stands is extensive and well wooded. The gardens and pleasure grounds are beautiful.

Sewerby Cottage is in the occupation of Mr. George Taylor, farmer.

Field House farm is occupied by Mr. Robert Wise; and Sands House and farm is now held by Mr. George Richardson.

Marton is situated on the road from Bridlington to Flamborough, and the Hamlet, which is very small, is about half a mile N.W. of Sewerby. The soil is chiefly the property of Y. Yarburgh, Esq., and Ralph Creyke, Esq.

The Manor House and farm belongs to the former gentleman, and is present in the occupation of Mr. George Simpson; Marton Hall is the neat residence of the Misses Creyke; and Marton Lodge and its farm are held by Mr. John Smith. The two latter places belong to Mr Creyke. Here are vestiges of an ancient ravine, consisting of a double line of defence, with breast works, extending 1 1/4 mile from the southern shore of Flamborough Head and termed Danes Dyke.

There is a Railway Station here for Marton and Flamborough.

Speeton Chapelry.-This township contains about 1,800 acres, but it is returned in the last census at 1,962 acres, including the sea coast. The whole, with the exception of a few acres, belongs to Lord Loudesborough, who inherits it under the will of the late W. J. Denison, Esq. The population of the township numbers 150 souls, and the rateable value is £1,640

The Village is small, and is situated about 5 1/2 miles N. by W. from Bridlington, near an eminence which commands a beautiful view of the shore from Scarborough to Flamborough Head. The German Ocean bounds the township on the north. Here is a Station on the Hull, Bridlington, and Scarborough Railway. Great numbers of those remarkable flint instruments, spear heads, &c., the use of which is generally attributed to the ancient British inhabitants of this part of Yorkshire, have been found in this township and neighbourhood. A kind of blue stone is picked off the cliff in this locality, and made into cement. A windmill upon Speeton Heights is a conspicuous object, and can be seen at a great distance, both by sea and land. There was an ancient beacon on Standard Hill.

The Chapel is an ancient humble stone edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, with a square bell turret at the west end, containing one bell. The foundation is evidently of Norman architecture. The chancel arch is broad and semicircular. The font is ancient and circular.

The Living is a Perpetual Curacy, of the nett value of £50. per ann. It is in the gift of Lord Londesborough, and incumbency of the Rev. G. Kennaird. South of the chapel are the remains of a large building and a moat.

The School was built in 1828, by the late Lord of the Manor, and Lord Londesborough contributes £5. per annum towards its support.

Burton Agnes - This parish comprises the townships of Burton Agnes, Gransmoor, Haisthorpe, and Thornholme, containing altogether 6,409 acres, and 650 inhabitants. The area of the first-mentioned township is 2,499 acres, according to the census return of 1851, but 3,010 according to the return of 1841. Population of the township in 1851, 345 souls; rateable value, £3,341.; amount of assessed property, £3,368. For the etymology of Burton see p.386. Sir Henry Boynton, Bart., is Lord of the Manor, and owner of the whole township except the glebe land. The family of Boynton, anciently De Bovington, is of great antiquity, and resided at Boynton, in this Riding, until the reign of Henry IV., when they removed to Barmston; but, as we have observed at page 402, Burton Agnes has been the family seat since the death of Sir F. Boynton in 1695. Sir Matthew Boynton, the first Baronet, who received his baronetcy from James I., in 1618, represented Hedon in Parliament in the reign of Charles I., and supported the Republicans in the Civil War. He obtained Burton Agnes, by marrying the heiress of Sir Henry Griffith, Bart., whose family had long been seated there, having obtained the manor, by marrying the heiress of Sir Philip Somerville. The present Baronet is son of Sir Henry Boynton, the 9th Baronet, by the daughter of Captain Gray; and niece of Wm. Watson, Esq., of Dover, Captain R.N. He was born at Nafferton Hall, in 1811; married, first in 1833, the second daughter of Walter Strickland, Esq., of Cokethorpe Park, Oxfordshire; and secondly, the second daughter of Thomas Lightfoot, Esq., of London.

The Benefice is a Vicarage with the Curacy of Harpham, in the patronage of the Hon. and Rev. Augustus Duncombe, and incumbency of the Rev. T. Hordern. It is valued in the King's Books at £20. 6s. 3d., and returned at £897. per ann. The tithes have been commuted for £1,601. 16s. 5d.; of which, £865. 16s. 5d. are payable to the Archbishop, and £735. 10s. to the Vicar, who has likewise 130 acres of glebe.

The Church (St. Martin) stands at the back of the Hall, and is a handsome edifice comprising a nave and aisles, chancel, and chapel attached to the north aisle, with a well-proportioned west tower, embattled and pinnacled. The clerestory of the aisle is also embattled. The interior is very elegantly fitted up, and the chancel is rich in decoration, the late incumbent, the Rev. R. I. Wilberforce, Archdeacon of the East Riding, having expended a very large sum in its restoration, &C The nave and aisles are divided by three pointed arches, springing from octagonal and circular columns. One division of the north aisle is parted off as a chapel, and contains four splendid monuments, vis:- a table tomb to Sir Roger Somerville, who was summoned to Parliament in the 1st of Edward I., and died in 1336; an elegant altar to of alabaster, on which are the effigies of Sir Walter Griffith, Knt., who died in 1481, and Jane, his first wife, daughter of Sir Ralph Neville, by Mary, granddaughter of John of Gaunt: Duke of Lancaster; a large altar monument, supporting three coffins of black marble, with an inscription to Sir Hy. Griffith, Bart., and his two wives; and a neat tablet to another Baronet of the same family, and his wife. In the window is some excellent modern stained glass. In the chancel are some handsome tablets to the Boynton family. There is a fine old Norman font, which was lately restored, after having been used for many years as a flower bed in the Vicarage garden.